Lost Kingdoms by Norman Davies – Aragon


The kingdom of Aragon was a major naval power in the Middle Ages. Its sailors skills at seacraft gave it power – and that power was used to carve out a maritime empire in the western Mediterranean.   Indeed its influence was felt in the eastern half of that sea as well. At its height it comprised in addition to its heartland on the southern side of the Pyrenees: Catalonia, Sardinia, Corsica, Athens, Sicily, Naples and the bit of Italy near to Naples and the Balearic Islands. Naples was no mean possession at the time. It was the largest port in the Western Mediterranean. There were several notable people of aragonese extraction who important figures in the late Middle Ages. Continue reading Lost Kingdoms by Norman Davies – Aragon

The Death of Belisarius – Gibbon’s Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Chapter 43 Part 1

belisarius blind
This didn’t happen – but reality wasn’t hugely better

My latest dollop of Gibbony goodness as I continue my extended review of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. And on the subject of extended things, in Chapter 43 we are looking at an empire that has just been considerably extended. Or rather, it is not so much extended as overextended. Let’s start with the newly reconquered province of Africa. Continue reading The Death of Belisarius – Gibbon’s Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Chapter 43 Part 1

The Magnificent Century by Thomas Costain

History books themselves have their own history.  History has always been a subject that interests people, and it was always a reasonably large proportion of whatever the available media of the day was.  And as parchment gave way to paper, and paper in turn became a mass market commodity more and more people were able to afford to indulge their interest in what had gone on in the past. So the popular history book intended for just anyone who was curious about the past started to appear in the 1930s and by the 1950s was an established genre.

One of the giants of popular history was Thomas Costain whose books sold in huge quantities. I think I missed out growing up because I have a feeling my teenage self would have loved them. The style of writing is the key.  This is history written as a story.

So what you get out of this history book is basically a rather old fashioned view of history – but that is in itself quite interesting.  How people in the fifties thought about history tells us quite a lot about what they believed in general.  They were interested in character and had a  much clearer idea of  what was right and wrong than we do.  So when a medieval king fiddles the system to his advantage, Thomas Costain regards this as a personal failing of the king involved. 

It is worth exploring this one a bit.  The king in question was Henry III and his modus operandum was to swear to comply with requests from this subjects for concessions.  And once he had done so, he would apply to the pope and get the agreement annulled.  This annoyed his subjects and in their exasperation they turned to Simon de Montfort. He proceeded to get parliament going, setting up history for several centuries of progress in the direction of democracy.

So basically the formula is that history is full of characters, and it is legitimate to invent stuff you don’t know to fill in the human side of things. History has a direction and a purpose and like fiction it always contrives to have a happy ending. 

Is this sort of history any use today?   I have to say I find it grating to read more than a small dollop at the time.  Hearing how pleased William the Marshall was when he finally got home after the wars for a bit of a rest is just annoying when you know there is simply no data on his emotional state.  The frequent value judgements are irritating even when the values expressed are ones we still hold, which we often don’t.  But it does make things very memorable, so if you want to have an overview of what was happening in the Middle Ages it isn’t a bad option. 

Labour – The Summer That Changed Everything BBC2 20/11/17

During the 2017 General Election I happened to be driving through Hastings, a town I know well and lived in for a few years. I was surprised to see a large group of Labour canvassers out in a fairly Tory part of the town. Hastings has gone Labour in the past but it was far from being an obvious target. I concluded that the folk I saw were enthusiastic but perhaps a little too optimistic. After all the media was assuring us that far from picking up places like Hastings Labour was on course to lose out badly. In fact one union leader set the bar pretty low by saying that if Labour only lost 20 seats it would be an acceptable result. Continue reading Labour – The Summer That Changed Everything BBC2 20/11/17

The First World War by John Keegan

The First World War by John Keegan is history as a story. Keegan is a journalist, and it is said that journalism is the first draft of history. (The first draft of anything is usually rubbish, so that is why I don’t read the papers.) And a good way to look at this book is as a journalist going back over the previous drafts and making the story tighter. This isn’t a book that probes deeply into the causes of the war or comes to any profound conclusions about its effects. It is just the story of what happened. If that is what you want, this is what you get.





And what a story. Continue reading The First World War by John Keegan

Betting The House by Tim Ross





Elections can often be dramatic and unpredictable events. But they are often soul destroying and boring as well. The UK’s 2015 one was just dispiriting. The referendum on the EU was not much fun either. And when Theresa May called her snap election in 2017 it looked like it would simply be the worse possible example of the genre. Continue reading Betting The House by Tim Ross

Gibbon’s Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Chapter 42 Part 1 – Establishment of the Lombards on the Danube

lombards settle in the balkans

We have given a lot of attention to the campaigns of Belisarius, especially those in Italy. Gibbon covers it all in sumptuous detail. I think we can assume that the court in Constantinople did as well. Big events like the recapture of Rome and Ravenna are bound to be seen as important and significant. Continue reading Gibbon’s Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Chapter 42 Part 1 – Establishment of the Lombards on the Danube

What Is Happening With Political Parties?


Edward Heath led the Conservatives in the 1970s

I wrote this back in 2015 just after Jeremy Corbyn was elected as Labour Party leader, but before his MPs started the process of trying to get rid of him.  At the time his rise seemed the most surprising and unpredicted political event.  I didn’t trouble publishing it at the time.  It isn’t particularly insightful or even very well written.  But it does show how quickly events change how things seem.  

I really really wish I had kept the slip of paper I put in my jacket pocket one Saturday night in 1978. I was 18, and was devoting considerable efforts to try and get a girlfriend. This was the height of the Disco era, so it was discos I mostly went to. But a straight forward old fashioned dance was worth a try as well. So this particular weekend I had ended up in the Conservative Club in the seaside town where I grew up, at a dance. I seem to remember enjoying it, but didn’t manage to pull anyone which was my main objective at the time. It was only the next day that I realised that by picking the cheaper admission option I had actually joined the Conservative Party and had a membership card to prove it. Continue reading What Is Happening With Political Parties?